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在职研究生

2008年考研英语一真题

      核心是headds…that…内中宾语从句的构造是hewassuperiorto…in…,andin…。

      参考译文:达尔文很谦逊的补充到,部分事需求高的留意力和细心的观测,也许他自己在观测该类事时比普全才有优势。

      宾语从句的构造是hispowerto…was…。

      12\.答案:D解析:本题稽考前后文的论理瓜葛和名词分析。

      书录录__红宝书《考研英语10年真题》目次:考研英语命题的点理论和根本原则一、命题的点理论二、命题的根本原则1三、参考答案和评分细则的创作考总纲的制定和审订头有些分拣说明(2005~2009年真题)英语学问使用——完形填充一、命题式二、稽考要端三、甄拔特征及命题趋向四、解题步调五、解题法子六、温习要端七、2005—2009年完形填充系精析阅了解A节一、命题式二、稽考要端三、甄拔特征及命题趋向四、阅要略五、2005—2009年阅了解A节系精析阅了解B节一、命题式二、稽考要端三、甄拔特征及命题趋向四、题型辨析五、解题法子六、2005—2009年阅了解B节系精析阅了解C节——英泽汉一、命题式二、稽考要端三、评分基准四、甄拔特征及命题趋向五、解题笔录六、译者技艺七、2005—2009年阅了解C节系精析著作一、命题式二、稽考要端三、评分基准四、岁岁年年考研英语著作命题题型及各题型真相揭秘五、命题趋向六、考研英语著作全天候经模式——三段式七、实用文(PartA)2005—2009年实用文精解考研英语·实用文重点句式及三段式垂范框架八、雄文文(PartB)2005—2009年雄文文精解考研英语·雄文文著作重点句式考研英语·画图作文著作三段式框架考研英语·图表作文三段式垂范框架二有些套题简练(2010年—2014年真题)2010年考研英语真题答案快速核查2010年考研英语答案系精析2010年考研英语真题专门家点评2011年考研英语真题答案快速核查2011年考研英语答案系精析2011年考研英语真题专门家点评2012年考研英语真题答案快速核查2012年考研英语答案系精析2012年考研英语真题专门家点评2013年考研英语真题答案快速核查2013年考研英语答案系精析2013年考研英语真题专门家点评2014年考研英语真题答案快速核查2014年考研英语答案系精析2014年考研英语真题专门家点评……《(1995年—2004年)通国硕士钻研生入学统一考英语(一)考试题》《(2005年—2014年)通国硕士钻研生入学统一考英语(一)考试题》1参考材料1【红宝书】考研英语语汇(必考词+地基词+超纲词)。

      率先根据段落定位原则定位到三段。

      根据天然段定位原则,36题在头段出题,38题在三段出题,那37题在二段出题的可能就很大。

      25.Towhichofthefollowingwouldtheauthormostprobablyagree?_______.ATheBritishwelfaresystemindulgesjobseekers’laziness.BOsborne’sreformswillreducetheriskofunemployment.CThejobseekers’allowancehasmettheiractualneeds.DUnemploymentbenefitsshouldnotbemadeconditional.答案:B底细题。

      Bbelieve信任。

      篇二段说明一样时新的问世方式——网络问世,使科技人手易于博得学结果。

      鉴于前句译文曾经提到这种惯,则这有些得以抒发为在他事先,谱曲家很少应用这种惯,组合语境还得以抒发为在他事先,谱曲家很少应用这种方式,或在他事先,只有极少数谱曲家会应用这种方式。

      48\.Ontheotherhand,hedidnotacceptaswellfoundedthechargemadebysomeofhiscriticsthat,whilehewasagoodobserver,hehadnopowerofreasoning.本句考清点是同位语从句,退让状语从句。

      除非A吻合题意。

      2\.基准答案B考点分析前后文语义和动词分析选项分析Asthebrain2werefertotheseoccurrencesas"seniormoments这句话的意是鉴于大脑2咱称这些象为瞬间性晚年痴呆,由此得以排除A和C。

      因而选B。

      ②定语从句中,when指引时刻状语从句,内中withwords做状语,译者时需调整词序到其点染的todescribe事先,得以抒发为当咱试行用言语来描述乐时。

      头个动名词词组中,withanextremeintensity为状语,抒发时需调整词序到其点染的increasingthevolume前,根据语境,volume意为响度,则increasing得以译者为提高。

      故此你如其下山,沿着河流走,就会找到有人的地域。

      23.C四段三拇指出,女面临的压力多来自己庭内部并且经常发生,无须如男所面临的压力多是战事和具有偶尔性的动态情形中。

      而Bwitness常用作及物动词,示意见证人,表明;Cobserve,示意观测,评说,以人作主语;D意为照准,经过的意,也是人作主语。

      B选项错在文中三段三行所提的女容忍压力的力量也许比男要更好。

      三段:著作情节为寄托期盼,示意谢谢。

      该题是底细题,调查底细。

      定语从句的核心顺译即可,内中reaction根据语境,得以译者为感受,其定语toit在抒发时前置,it指代恢复为乐,则得以译者为一切咱能做的,即明确抒发咱对乐的感受,或调整抒发为咱不得不明确抒发咱对乐的感受。

      【译者要端】①本句核心为完整倒装,只是在译者时,顺译即可,内中his指代贝多芬的,核体会以抒发为:尤为紧要的是,他(贝多芬)对自由的见地….。

      除非A吻合题意。

      二步,在头步的地基上,研读对应的套题解析,执掌套题的命题笔录,全方向提拔解题技艺与力量。

      留意须知:依照本套书本考试题册上的编排程序,一套一套地进展检测和钻研增高:头步,在规程的时刻范畴内进展套题自测,然后,查回复案,找到错和失分点,明确本人的虚弱环和下一步夺取的目标。

      【红宝书】遵循由简略到繁杂、从局部到整体的原则,先分门别类突破,再整合增高。

      内中that指引宾语从句sufferingisinevitable,butthecouragetofightitrenderslifeworthliving,为saying的宾语,宾语从句中it指代suffering。

      故答案为A。

      SectionIUseofEnglishDirections:Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)Theideathatsomegroupsofpeoplemaybemoreintelligentthanothersisoneofthosehypothesesthatdarenotspeakitsname.ButGregoryCochranis1tosayitanyway.Heisthat2bird,ascientistwhoworksindependently3anyinstitution.Hehelpedpopularizetheideathatsomediseasesnot4thoughttohaveabacterialcausewereactuallyinfections,whicharousedmuchcontroversywhenitwasfirstsuggested.5he,however,mighttrembleatthe6ofwhatheisabouttodo.Togetherwithanothertwoscientists,heispublishingapaperwhichnotonly7thatonegroupofhumanityismoreintelligentthantheothers,butexplainstheprocessthathasbroughtthisabout.Thegroupin8areaparticularpeopleoriginatedfromcentralEurope.Theprocessisnaturalselection.ThisgroupgenerallydowellinIQtest,912-15pointsabovethe10valueof100,andhavecontributed11totheintellectualandculturallifeoftheWest,asthe12oftheirelites,includingseveralworld-renownedscientists,13theyalsosuffermoreoftenthanmostpeoplefromanumberofnastygeneticdiseases,suchasbreastcancer.Thesefacts,14avepreviouslybeenthoughtunrelated.Theformerhasbeen15socialeffects,suchasastrongtraditionof16ucation.Thelatterwasseenasa(an)17geneticisolation.Dr.Cochransuggeststhattheintelligenceanddiseasesareintimately18isargumentisthattheunusualhistoryofthesepeoplehas19emtouniqueevolutionarypressuresthathaveresultedinthis20ateofaffairs.1.AselectedBpreparedCobligedDpleased2.AuniqueBparticularCspecialDrare3.AofBwithCinDagainst4.AsubsequentlyBpresentlyCpreviouslyDlately5.AOnlyBSoCEvenDHence6.AthoughtBsightCcostDrisk7.AadvisesBsuggestsCprotestsDobjects8.AprogressBfactCneedDquestion9.AattainingBscoringCreachingDcalculating10.AnormalBcommonCmeanDtotal11.AunconsciouslyBdisproportionatelyCindefinitelyDunaccountably12.AmissionsBfortunesCinterestsDcareers13.AaffirmBwitnessCobserveDapprove14.AmoreoverBthereforeChoweverDmeanwhile15.AgivenupBgotoverCcarriedonDputdown16.AassessingBsupervisingCadministeringDvaluing17.AdevelopmentBoriginCconsequenceDinstrument18.AlinkedBintegratedCwovenDcombined19.AlimitedBsubjectedCconvertedDdirected20.AparadoxicalBincompatibleCinevitableDcontinuousSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirections:Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)Text1Whilestillcatching-uptomeninsomespheresofmodernlife,womenappeartobewayaheadinatleastoneundesirablecategory.Womenareparticularlysusceptibletodevelopingdepressionandanxietydisordersinresponsetostresscomparedtomen,accordingtoDr.Yehuda,chiefpsychiatristatNewYork’sVeteran’sAdministrationHospital.Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.Inseveralofthestudies,whenstressed-outfemaleratshadtheirovaries(thefemalereproductiveorgans)removed,theirchemicalresponsesbecameequaltothoseofthemales.Addingtoawoman’sincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.It’snotnecessarilythatwomendon’tcopeaswell.It’sjustthattheyhavesomuchmoretocopewith,saysDr.Yehuda.Theircapacityfortoleratingstressmayevenbegreaterthanmen’s,sheobserves,it’sjustthatthey’redealingwithsomanymorethingsthattheybecomewornoutfromitmorevisiblyandsooner.Dr.Yehudanotesanotherdifferencebetweenthesexes.Ithinkthatthekindsofthingsthatwomenareexposedtotendtobeinmoreofachronicorrepeatednature.Mengotowarandareexposedtocombatstress.Menareexposedtomoreactsofrandomphysicalviolence.Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedtotendtobeindomesticsituations,by,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeone-shotdeals.Thewear-and-tearthatcomesfromtheselongerrelationshipscanbequitedevastating.AdelineAlvarezmarriedat18andgavebirthtoason,butwasdeterminedtofinishcollege.Istruggledalottogetthecollegedegree.Iwaslivinginsomuchfrustrationthatthatwasmyescape,togotoschool,andgetaheadanddobetter.Later,hermarriageendedandshebecameasinglemother.It’sthehardestthingtotakecareofateenager,haveajob,paytherent,paythecarpayment,andpaythedebt.Ilivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.NoteveryoneexperiencesthekindsofseverechronicstressesAlvarezdescribes.Butmostwomentodayarecopingwithalotofobligations,withfewbreaks,andfeelingthestrain.Alvarez’sexperiencedemonstratestheimportanceoffindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.21.Whichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothefirsttwoparagraphs?AWomenarebiologicallymorevulnerabletostress.BWomenarestillsufferingmuchstresscausedbymen.CWomenaremoreexperiencedthanmenincopingwithstress.DMenandwomenshowdifferentinclinationswhenfacedwithstress.22.Dr.Yehuda’sresearchsuggeststhatwomenAneedextradosesofchemicalstohandlestress.Bhavelimitedcapacityfortoleratingstress.Caremorecapableofavoidingstress.Dareexposedtomorestress.23.AccordingtoParagraph4,thestresswomenconfronttendstobeAdomesticandtemporary.Birregularandviolent.Cdurableandfrequent.Dtrivialandrandom.24.ThesentenceIlivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.(Line6,Para.5)showsthatAAlvarezcaredaboutnothingbutmakingmoney.BAlvarez’ssalarybarelycoveredherhouseholdexpenses.CAlvarezgotpaychecksfromdifferentjobs.DAlvarezpaidpracticallyeverythingbycheck.25.Whichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetext?AStrainofStress:NoWayOut?BResponsestoStress:GenderDifferenceCStressAnalysis:WhatChemicalsSayDGenderInequality:WomenUnderStressText2Itusedtobesostraightforward.Ateamofresearchersworkingtogetherinthelaboratorywouldsubmittheresultsoftheirresearchtoajournal.Ajournaleditorwouldthenremovetheauthors’namesandaffiliationsfromthepaperandsendittotheirpeersforreview.Dependingonthecommentsreceived,theeditorwouldacceptthepaperforpublicationordeclineit.Copyrightrestedwiththejournalpublisher,andresearchersseekingknowledgeoftheresultswouldhavetosubscribetothejournal.Nolonger.TheInternet-andpressurefromfundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernment-fundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit-ismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.TheOrganizationforEconomicCo-operationandDevelopment(OECD)hasjustissuedareportdescribingthefar-reachingconsequencesofthis.Thereport,byJohnHoughtonofVictoriaUniversityinAustraliaandGrahamVickeryoftheOECD,makesheavyreadingforpublisherswhohave,sofar,madehandsomeprofits.Butitgoesfurtherthanthat.Itsignalsachangeinwhathas,untilnow,beenakeyelementofscientificendeavor.Thevalueofknowledgeandthereturnonthepublicinvestmentinresearchdepends,inpart,uponwidedistributionandreadyaccess.Itisbigbusiness.InAmerica,thecorescientificpublishingmarketisestimatedatbetween$7billionand$11billion.TheInternationalAssociationofScientific,TechnicalandMedicalPublisherssaysthattherearemorethan2,000publishersworldwidespecializinginthesesubjects.Theypublishmorethan1.2millionarticleseachyearinsome16,000journals.Thisisnowchanging.AccordingtotheOECDreport,some75%ofscholarlyjournalsarenowonline.Entirelynewbusinessmodelsareemerging;threemainoneswereidentifiedbythereport’sauthors.Thereistheso-calledbigdeal,whereinstitutionalsubscriberspayforaccesstoacollectionofonlinejournaltitlesthroughsite-licensingagreements.Thereisopen-accesspublishing,typicallysupportedbyaskingtheauthor(orhisemployer)topayforthepapertobepublished.Finally,thereareopen-accessarchives,whereorganizationssuchasuniversitiesorinternationallaboratoriessupportinstitutionalrepositories.Othermodelsexistthatarehybridsofthesethree,suchasdelayedopen-access,wherejournalsallowonlysubscriberstoreadapaperforthefirstsixmonths,beforemakingitfreelyavailabletoeveryonewhowishestoseeit.Allthiscouldchangethetraditionalformofthepeer-reviewprocess,atleastforthepublicationofpapers.26.Inthefirstparagraph,theauthordiscussesAthebackgroundinformationofjournalediting.Bthepublicationroutineoflaboratoryreports.Ctherelationsofauthorswithjournalpublishers.Dthetraditionalprocessofjournalpublication.27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheOECDreport?AItcriticizesgovernment-fundedresearch.BItintroducesaneffectivemeansofpublication.CItupsetsprofit-makingjournalpublishers.DItbenefitsscientificresearchconsiderably.28.Accordingtothetext,onlinepublicationissignificantinthatAitprovidesaneasieraccesstoscientificresults.Bitbringshugeprofitstoscientificresearchers.Citemphasizesthecrucialroleofscientificknowledge.Ditfacilitatespublicinvestmentinscientificresearch.29.Withtheopen-accesspublishingmodel,theauthorofapaperisrequiredtoAcoverthecostofitspublication.Bsubscribetothejournalpublishingit.Callowotheronlinejournalstouseitfreely.Dcompletethepeer-reviewbeforesubmission.30.Whichofthefollowingbestsummarizesthemainideaofthetext?ATheInternetisposingathreattopublishers.BAnewmodeofpublicationisemerging.CAuthorswelcomethenewchannelforpublication.DPublicationisrenderedeasierbyonlineservice.Text3Intheearly1960sWiltChamberlainwasoneofonlythreeplayersintheNationalBasketballAssociation(NBA)listedatoversevenfeet.Ifhehadplayedlastseason,however,hewouldhavebeenoneof42.Thebodiesplayingmajorprofessionalsportshavechangeddramaticallyovertheyears,andmanagershavebeenmorethanwillingtoadjustteamuniformstofitthegrowingnumbersofbigger,longerframes.Thetrendinsports,though,maybeobscuringanunrecognizedreality:Americanshavegenerallystoppedgrowing.Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago,today’speople-especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations-apparentlyreachedtheirlimitintheearly1960s.Andtheyaren’tlikelytogetanytaller.Inthegeneralpopulationtoday,atthisgenetic,environmentallevel,we’veprettymuchgoneasfaraswecango,saysanthropologistWilliamCameronChumleaofWrightStateUniversity.InthecaseofNBAplayers,theirincreaseinheightappearstoresultfromtheincreasinglycommonpracticeofrecruitingplayersfromallovertheworld.Growth,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20,demandscaloriesandnutrients-notably,protein-tofeedexpandingtissues.Atthestartofthe20thcentury,under-nutritionandchildhoodinfectionsgotintheway.Butasdietandhealthimproved,childrenandadolescentshave,onaverage,increasedinheightbyaboutaninchandahalfevery20years,apatternknownastheseculartrendinheight.YetaccordingtotheCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention,averageheight-5′9″formen,5′4″forwomen-hasn’treallychangedsince1960.Geneticallyspeaking,thereareadvantagestoavoidingsubstantialheight.Duringchildbirth,largerbabieshavemoredifficultypassingthroughthebirthcanal.Moreover,eventhoughhumanshavebeenuprightformillionsofyears,ourfeetandbackcontinuetostrugglewithbipedalpostureandcannoteasilywithstandrepeatedstrainimposedbyoversizelimbs.Therearesomerealconstraintsthataresetbythegeneticarchitectureoftheindividualorganism,saysanthropologistWilliamLeonardofNorthwesternUniversity.Geneticmaximumscanchange,butdon’texpectthistohappensoon.ClaireC.Gordon,senioranthropologistattheArmyResearchCenterinNatick,Mass.,ensuresthat90percentoftheuniformsandworkstationsfitrecruitswithoutalteration.Shesaysthat,unlikethoseforbasketball,thelengthofmilitaryuniformshasnotchangedforsometime.Andifyouneedtopredicthumanheightinthenearfuturetodesignapieceofequipment,Gordonsaysthatbyandlarge,youcouldusetoday’sdataandfeelfairlyconfident.31.WiltChamberlainiscitedasanexampletoAillustratethechangeofheightofNBAplayers.BshowthepopularityofNBAplayersintheU.S..CcomparedifferentgenerationsofNBAplayers.DassesstheachievementsoffamousNBAplayers.32.Whichofthefollowingplaysakeyroleinbodygrowthaccordingtothetext?AGeneticmodification.BNaturalenvironment.CLivingstandards.DDailyexercise.33.Onwhichofthefollowingstatementswouldtheauthormostprobablyagree?ANon-Americansaddtotheaverageheightofthenation.BHumanheightisconditionedbytheuprightposture.CAmericansarethetallestonaverageintheworld.DLargerbabiestendtobecometallerinadulthood.34.WelearnfromthelastparagraphthatinthenearfutureAthegarmentindustrywillreconsidertheuniformsize.Bthedesignofmilitaryuniformswillremainunchanged.Cgenetictestingwillbeemployedinselectingsportsmen.Dtheexistingdataofhumanheightwillstillbeapplicable.35.ThetextintendstotellusthatAthechangeofhumanheightfollowsacyclicpattern.Bhumanheightisbecomingevenmorepredictable.CAmericanshavereachedtheirgeneticgrowthlimit.DthegeneticpatternofAmericanshasaltered.Text4In1784,fiveyearsbeforehebecamepresidentoftheUnitedStates,GeorgeWashington,52,wasnearlytoothless.Sohehiredadentisttotransplantnineteethintohisjaw-havingextractedthemfromthemouthsofhisslaves.That’safardifferentimagefromthecherry-tree-choppingGeorgemostpeoplerememberfromtheirhistorybooks.Butrecently,manyhistorianshavebeguntofocusontherolesslaveryplayedinthelivesofthefoundinggeneration.TheyhavebeenspurredinpartbyDNAevidencemadeavailablein1998,whichalmostcertainlyprovedThomasJeffersonhadfatheredatleastonechildwithhisslaveSallyHemings.Andonlyoverthepast30yearshavescholarsexaminedhistoryfromthebottomup.Worksofseveralhistoriansrevealthemoralcompromisesmadebythenation’searlyleadersandthefragilenatureofthecountry’sinfancy.Moresignificantly,theyarguethatmanyoftheFoundingFathersknewslaverywaswrong-andyetmostdidlittletofightit.Morethananything,thehistorianssay,thefounderswerehamperedbythecultureoftheirtime.WhileWashingtonandJeffersonprivatelyexpresseddistasteforslavery,theyalsounderstoodthatitwaspartofthepoliticalandeconomicbedrockofthecountrytheyhelpedtocreate.Foronething,theSouthcouldnotaffordtopartwithitsslaves.Owningslaveswaslikehavingalargebankaccount,saysWiencek,authorofAnImperfectGod:GeorgeWashington,HisSlaves,andtheCreationofAmerica.ThesouthernstateswouldnothavesignedtheConstitutionwithoutprotectionsforthepeculiarinstitution,includingaclausethatcountedaslaveasthreefifthsofamanforpurposesofcongressionalrepresentation.Andthestatesmen’spoliticallivesdependedonslavery.Thethree-fifthsformulahandedJeffersonhisnarrowvictoryinthepresidentialelectionof1800byinflatingthevotesofthesouthernstatesintheElectoralCollege.Onceinoffice,JeffersonextendedslaverywiththeLouisianaPurchasein1803;thenewlandwascarvedinto13states,includingthreeslavestates.Still,JeffersonfreedHemings’schildren-thoughnotHemingsherselforhisapproximately150otherslaves.Washington,whohadbeguntobelievethatallmenwerecreatedequalafterobservingthebraveryoftheblacksoldiersduringtheRevolutionaryWar,overcamethestrongoppositionofhisrelativestogranthisslavestheirfreedominhiswill.Onlyadecadeearlier,suchanactwouldhaverequiredlegislativeapprovalinVirginia.36.GeorgeWashington’sdentalsurgeryismentionedtoAshowtheprimitivemedicalpracticeinthepast.Bdemonstratethecrueltyofslaveryinhisdays.CstresstheroleofslavesintheU.S.history.Drevealsomeunknownaspectofhislife.37.WemayinferfromthesecondparagraphthatADNAtechnologyhasbeenwidelyappliedtohistoryresearch.BinitsearlydaystheU.S.wasconfrontedwithdelicatesituations.ChistoriansdeliberatelymadeupsomestoriesofJefferson’slife.DpoliticalcompromisesareeasilyfoundthroughouttheU.S.history.38.WhatdowelearnaboutThomasJefferson?AHispoliticalviewchangedhisattitudetowardsslavery.BHisstatusasafathermadehimfreethechildslaves.CHisattitudetowardsslaverywascomplex.DHisaffairwithaslavestainedhisprestige.39.Whichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothetext?ASomeFoundingFathersbenefitpoliticallyfromslavery.BSlavesintheolddaysdidnothavetherighttovote.CSlaveownersusuallyhadlargesavingsaccounts.DSlaverywasregardedasapeculiarinstitution.40.Washington’sdecisiontofreeslavesoriginatedfromhisAmoralconsiderations.Bmilitaryexperience.Cfinancialconditions.Dpoliticalstand.PartBDirections:Inthefollowingarticle,somesentenceshavebeenremoved.ForQuestions41-45,choosethemostsuitableonefromthelistA-Gtofitintoeachofthenumberedblanks.Therearetwoextrachoices,whichdonotfitinanyoftheblanks.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)Thetimeforsharpeningpencils,arrangingyourdesk,anddoingalmostanythingelseinsteadofwritinghasended.Thefirstdraftwillappearonthepageonlyifyoustopavoidingtheinevitableandsit,standup,orliedowntowrite.(41)Beflexible.Youroutlineshouldsmoothlyconductyoufromonepointtothenext,butdonotpermitittorailroadyou.Ifarelevantandimportantideaoccurstoyounow,workitintothedraft.(42)Grammar,punctuation,andspellingcanwaituntilyourevise.Concentrateonwhatyouaresaying.Goodwritingmostoftenoccurswhenyouareinhotpursuitofanidearatherthaninanervoussearchforerrors.(43)Yourpageswillbeeasiertokeeptrackofthatway,and,ifyouhavetoclipaparagraphtoplaceitelsewhere,youwillnotloseanywritingontheotherside.Ifyouareworkingonawordprocessor,youcantakeadvantageofitscapacitytomakeadditionsanddeletionsaswellasmoveentireparagraphsbymakingjustafewsimplekeyboardcommands.Somesoftwareprogramscanalsocheckspellingandcertaingrammaticalelementsinyourwriting.(44)Theseprintoutsarealsoeasiertoreadthanthescreenwhenyouworkonrevisions.Onceyouhaveafirstdraftonpaper,youcandeletematerialthatisunrelatedtoyourthesisandaddmaterialnecessarytoillustrateyourpointsandmakeyourpaperconvincing.ThestudentwhowroteTheA&PasaStateofMindwiselydroppedaparagraphthatquestionedwhetherSammydisplayschauvinisticattitudestowardwomen.(45)Rememberthatyourinitialdraftisonlythat.Youshouldgothroughthepapermanytimes-andthenagain-workingtosubstantiateandclarifyyourideas.Youmayevenendupwithseveralentireversionsofthepaper.Rewrite.Thesentenceswithineachparagraphshouldberelatedtoasingletopic.Transitionsshouldconnectoneparagraphtothenextsothattherearenoabruptorconfusingshifts.Awkwardorwordyphrasingorunclearsentencesandparagraphsshouldbemercilesslypokedandproddedintoshape.ATomakerevisingeasier,leavewidemarginsandextraspacebetweenlinessothatyoucaneasilyaddwords,sentences,andcorrections.Writeononlyonesideofthepaper.BAfteryouhaveclearlyandadequatelydevelopedthebodyofyourpaper,payparticularattentiontotheintroductoryandconcludingparagraphs.It’sprobablybesttowritetheintroductionlast,afteryouknowpreciselywhatyouareintroducing.Concludingparagraphsdemandequalattentionbecausetheyleavethereaderwithafinalimpression.CIt’sworthremembering,however,thatthoughacleancopyfreshoffaprintermaylookterrific,itwillreadonlyaswellasthethinkingandwritingthathavegoneintoit.Manywritersprudentlystoretheirdataondisksandprinttheirpageseachtimetheyfinishadrafttoavoidlosinganymaterialbecauseofpowerfailuresorotherproblems.DItmakesnodifferencehowyouwrite,justsoyoudo.Nowthatyouhavedevelopedatopicintoatentativethesis,youcanassembleyournotesandbegintofleshoutwhateveroutlineyouhavemade.EAlthoughthisisaninterestingissue,ithasnothingtodowiththethesis,whichexplainshowthesettinginfluencesSammy’sdecisiontoquithisjob.Insteadofincludingthatparagraph,sheaddedonethatdescribedLengel’scrabbedresponsetothegirlssothatshecouldleaduptotheA&Ppolicyheenforces.FInthefinalparagraphaboutthesignificanceofthesettinginA&P,thestudentbringstogetherthereasonsSammyquithisjobbyreferringtohisrefusaltoacceptLengel’sstorepolicies.GByusingthefirstdraftasameansofthinkingaboutwhatyouwanttosay,youwillverylikelydiscovermorethanyournotesoriginallysuggested.Plentyofgoodwritersdon’tuseoutlinesatallbutdiscoverorderingprinciplesastheywrite.Donotattempttocomposeaperfectlycorrectdraftthefirsttimearound.PartCDirections:ReadthefollowingtextcarefullyandthentranslatetheunderlinedsegmentsintoChinese.YourtranslationshouldbewrittenclearlyonANSWERSHEET2.(10points)Inhisautobiography,Darwinhimselfspeaksofhisintellectualpowerswithextraordinarymodesty.Hepointsoutthathealwaysexperiencedmuchdifficultyinexpressinghimselfclearlyandconcisely,but(46)hebelievesthatthisverydifficultymayhavehadthecompensatingadvantageofforcinghimtothinklongandintentlyabouteverysentence,andthusenablinghimtodetecterrorsinreasoningandinhisownobservations.Hedisclaimedthepossessionofanygreatquicknessofapprehensionorwit,suchasdistinguishedHuxley.(47)Heasserted,also,thathispowertofollowalongandpurelyabstracttrainofthoughtwasverylimited,forwhichreasonhefeltcertainthathenevercouldhavesucceededwithmathematics.Hismemory,too,hedescribedasextensive,buthazy.Sopoorinonesensewasitthathenevercouldrememberformorethanafewdaysasingledateoralineofpoetry.(48)Ontheotherhand,hedidnotacceptaswellfoundedthechargemadebysomeofhiscriticsthat,whilehewasagoodobserver,hehadnopowerofreasoning.This,hethought,couldnotbetrue,becausetheOriginofSpeciesisonelongargumentfromthebeginningtotheend,andhasconvincedmanyablemen.Noone,hesubmits,couldhavewrittenitwithoutpossessingsomepowerofreasoning.HewaswillingtoassertthatIhaveafairshareofinvention,andofcommonsenseorjudgment,suchaseveryfairlysuccessfullawyerordoctormusthave,butnot,Ibelieve,inanyhigherdegree.(49)Headdshumblythatperhapshewassuperiortothecommonrunofmeninnoticingthingswhicheasilyescapeattention,andinobservingthemcarefully.Writinginthelastyearofhislife,heexpressedtheopinionthatintwoorthreerespectshismindhadchangedduringtheprecedingtwentyorthirtyyears.Uptotheageofthirtyorbeyonditpoetryofmanykindsgavehimgreatpleasure.Formerly,too,pictureshadgivenhimconsiderable,andmusicverygreat,delight.In1881,however,hesaid:NowformanyyearsIcannotenduretoreadalineofpoetry.Ihavealsoalmostlostmytasteforpicturesormusic.(50)Darwinwasconvincedthatthelossofthesetasteswasnotonlyalossofhappiness,butmightpossiblybeinjurioustotheintellect,andmoreprobablytothemoralcharacter.SectionIIIWritingPartA51.Directions:YouhavejustcomebackfromCanadaandfoundamusicCDinyourluggagethatyouforgottoreturntoBob,yourlandlordthere.Writehimaletterto1)makeanapology,and2)suggestasolution.Youshouldwriteabout100wordsonANSWERSHEET2.Donotsignyourownnameattheendoftheletter.UseLiMinginstead.Donotwritetheaddress.(10points)PartB52.Directions:Writeanessayof160-200wordsbasedonthefollowingdrawing.Inyouressay,youshould1)describethedrawingbriefly,2)explainitsintendedmeaning,andthen3)giveyourcomments.YoushouldwriteneatlyonANSWERSHEET2.(20points)真题详解完型填空1、答案:B解析:本题测试语义论理衔接。

      score的意是得分,打分,而其它三项没这层意。

      B选项中有another,因而决不会是头段。

      这份汇报使到眼前为止赢得不菲赢利的很多问世商争相阅(thereportmakeheavyreadingforpublishers)。

      经过对原文的了解可知,篇前两段要紧描绘士女因生理上的差异,因而可能性在一样的情形下,女可能性更易于在压力下发生忧虑和沮丧。

      2008年考研英语真题答案详解之老幼作文实用文范文DearBob,Iamwritingtoexpressmyapologytoyou.Severaldaysago,IborrowedyourmusicCDwhenIlivedinyourhouse.Unfortunately,afterIcamebackfromCanada,Ifounditinmyluggage.IwasinsuchahurrythatIforgottoreturnittoyou.Iwillsendittoyoubypostorexpressassoonaspossible.Ifnecessary,Iwillcompensateforanytroublesitmaycause.Onceagain,Ifeelsosorryforanyinconveniencecaused.Pleaseacceptmyapologies.Sincerelyyours,LiMing雄文文范文Asisillustratedinthepicture,thetwodisabledpersonswhosecrippledlegsareboundtogetherdoalotoftraveling.Accordingly,thisfar-reachingpicturereflectsacommonphenomenonintoday’ssociety:thepeoplewhoareinthedarkwanttoturnthecornerbuttheycannotmakeitrespectivelyandinturntheyhavetochoosetopulltogetherintimesoftrouble.Thereareseveralreasonsaccountingforthis.Sincewehavetoliveinanon-the-movelifestyle,wemayencountervariousplights,wherewewouldbeatalossratherthantoseekforothers’assistance.Furthermore,ifwedonotofferhelptoeachotherwhenweconfrontdilemma,wewouldnotrealizeourdream.AndnoissueinChinaisasbasictobuildupthesocietyinharmonyastoconductcoordinationinfaceofdisasters.Judgingfromwhathavebeenarguedabove,peoplehavecometorealizethevalueofmutualaid.Itis,therefore,necessarythatsomeeffectivestepsbemadetoadvocatespiritofsupportingeachother.Tobeginwith,thegovernmentshouldmakelawstoencouragepeopletounite.Inaddition,peopleshouldenhancetheawarenessofcaringeachotherespeciallywhentheyareintrouble.Onlyinthoseways,canwemakepeople,evennotbeingacquaintance,helpeachother.,SectionIUseofEnglishDirections:Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)Theideathatsomegroupsofpeoplemaybemoreintelligentthanothersisoneofthosehypothesesthatdarenotspeakitsname.ButGregoryCochranis1tosayitanyway.Heisthat2bird,ascientistwhoworksindependently3anyinstitution.Hehelpedpopularizetheideathatsomediseasesnot4thoughttohaveabacterialcausewereactuallyinfections,whicharousedmuchcontroversywhenitwasfirstsuggested.5he,however,mighttrembleatthe6ofwhatheisabouttodo.Togetherwithanothertwoscientists,heispublishingapaperwhichnotonly7thatonegroupofhumanityismoreintelligentthantheothers,butexplainstheprocessthathasbroughtthisabout.Thegroupin8areaparticularpeopleoriginatedfromcentralEurope.Theprocessisnaturalselection.ThisgroupgenerallydowellinIQtest,912-15pointsabovethe10valueof100,andhavecontributed11totheintellectualandculturallifeoftheWest,asthe12oftheirelites,includingseveralworld-renownedscientists,13theyalsosuffermoreoftenthanmostpeoplefromanumberofnastygeneticdiseases,suchasbreastcancer.Thesefacts,14avepreviouslybeenthoughtunrelated.Theformerhasbeen15socialeffects,suchasastrongtraditionof16ucation.Thelatterwasseenasa(an)17geneticisolation.Dr.Cochransuggeststhattheintelligenceanddiseasesareintimately18isargumentisthattheunusualhistoryofthesepeoplehas19emtouniqueevolutionarypressuresthathaveresultedinthis20ateofaffairs.1.AselectedBpreparedCobligedDpleased2.AuniqueBparticularCspecialDrare3.AofBwithCinDagainst4.AsubsequentlyBpresentlyCpreviouslyDlately5.AOnlyBSoCEvenDHence6.AthoughtBsightCcostDrisk7.AadvisesBsuggestsCprotestsDobjects8.AprogressBfactCneedDquestion9.AattainingBscoringCreachingDcalculating10.AnormalBcommonCmeanDtotal11.AunconsciouslyBdisproportionatelyCindefinitelyDunaccountably12.AmissionsBfortunesCinterestsDcareers13.AaffirmBwitnessCobserveDapprove14.AmoreoverBthereforeChoweverDmeanwhile15.AgivenupBgotoverCcarriedonDputdown16.AassessingBsupervisingCadministeringDvaluing17.AdevelopmentBoriginCconsequenceDinstrument18.AlinkedBintegratedCwovenDcombined19.AlimitedBsubjectedCconvertedDdirected20.AparadoxicalBincompatibleCinevitableDcontinuousSectionIIReadingComprehensionPartADirections:Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(40points)Text1Whilestillcatching-uptomeninsomespheresofmodernlife,womenappeartobewayaheadinatleastoneundesirablecategory.Womenareparticularlysusceptibletodevelopingdepressionandanxietydisordersinresponsetostresscomparedtomen,accordingtoDr.Yehuda,chiefpsychiatristatNewYork’sVeteran’sAdministrationHospital.Studiesofbothanimalsandhumanshaveshownthatsexhormonessomehowaffectthestressresponse,causingfemalesunderstresstoproducemoreofthetriggerchemicalsthandomalesunderthesameconditions.Inseveralofthestudies,whenstressed-outfemaleratshadtheirovaries(thefemalereproductiveorgans)removed,theirchemicalresponsesbecameequaltothoseofthemales.Addingtoawoman’sincreaseddoseofstresschemicals,areherincreasedopportunitiesforstress.It’snotnecessarilythatwomendon’tcopeaswell.It’sjustthattheyhavesomuchmoretocopewith,saysDr.Yehuda.Theircapacityfortoleratingstressmayevenbegreaterthanmen’s,sheobserves,it’sjustthatthey’redealingwithsomanymorethingsthattheybecomewornoutfromitmorevisiblyandsooner.Dr.Yehudanotesanotherdifferencebetweenthesexes.Ithinkthatthekindsofthingsthatwomenareexposedtotendtobeinmoreofachronicorrepeatednature.Mengotowarandareexposedtocombatstress.Menareexposedtomoreactsofrandomphysicalviolence.Thekindsofinterpersonalviolencethatwomenareexposedtotendtobeindomesticsituations,by,unfortunately,parentsorotherfamilymembers,andtheytendnottobeone-shotdeals.Thewear-and-tearthatcomesfromtheselongerrelationshipscanbequitedevastating.AdelineAlvarezmarriedat18andgavebirthtoason,butwasdeterminedtofinishcollege.Istruggledalottogetthecollegedegree.Iwaslivinginsomuchfrustrationthatthatwasmyescape,togotoschool,andgetaheadanddobetter.Later,hermarriageendedandshebecameasinglemother.It’sthehardestthingtotakecareofateenager,haveajob,paytherent,paythecarpayment,andpaythedebt.Ilivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.NoteveryoneexperiencesthekindsofseverechronicstressesAlvarezdescribes.Butmostwomentodayarecopingwithalotofobligations,withfewbreaks,andfeelingthestrain.Alvarez’sexperiencedemonstratestheimportanceoffindingwaystodiffusestressbeforeitthreatensyourhealthandyourabilitytofunction.21.Whichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothefirsttwoparagraphs?AWomenarebiologicallymorevulnerabletostress.BWomenarestillsufferingmuchstresscausedbymen.CWomenaremoreexperiencedthanmenincopingwithstress.DMenandwomenshowdifferentinclinationswhenfacedwithstress.22.Dr.Yehuda’sresearchsuggeststhatwomenAneedextradosesofchemicalstohandlestress.Bhavelimitedcapacityfortoleratingstress.Caremorecapableofavoidingstress.Dareexposedtomorestress.23.AccordingtoParagraph4,thestresswomenconfronttendstobeAdomesticandtemporary.Birregularandviolent.Cdurableandfrequent.Dtrivialandrandom.24.ThesentenceIlivedfrompaychecktopaycheck.(Line6,Para.5)showsthatAAlvarezcaredaboutnothingbutmakingmoney.BAlvarez’ssalarybarelycoveredherhouseholdexpenses.CAlvarezgotpaychecksfromdifferentjobs.DAlvarezpaidpracticallyeverythingbycheck.25.Whichofthefollowingwouldbethebesttitleforthetext?AStrainofStress:NoWayOut?BResponsestoStress:GenderDifferenceCStressAnalysis:WhatChemicalsSayDGenderInequality:WomenUnderStressText2Itusedtobesostraightforward.Ateamofresearchersworkingtogetherinthelaboratorywouldsubmittheresultsoftheirresearchtoajournal.Ajournaleditorwouldthenremovetheauthors’namesandaffiliationsfromthepaperandsendittotheirpeersforreview.Dependingonthecommentsreceived,theeditorwouldacceptthepaperforpublicationordeclineit.Copyrightrestedwiththejournalpublisher,andresearchersseekingknowledgeoftheresultswouldhavetosubscribetothejournal.Nolonger.TheInternet-andpressurefromfundingagencies,whoarequestioningwhycommercialpublishersaremakingmoneyfromgovernment-fundedresearchbyrestrictingaccesstoit-ismakingaccesstoscientificresultsareality.TheOrganizationforEconomicCo-operationandDevelopment(OECD)hasjustissuedareportdescribingthefar-reachingconsequencesofthis.Thereport,byJohnHoughtonofVictoriaUniversityinAustraliaandGrahamVickeryoftheOECD,makesheavyreadingforpublisherswhohave,sofar,madehandsomeprofits.Butitgoesfurtherthanthat.Itsignalsachangeinwhathas,untilnow,beenakeyelementofscientificendeavor.Thevalueofknowledgeandthereturnonthepublicinvestmentinresearchdepends,inpart,uponwidedistributionandreadyaccess.Itisbigbusiness.InAmerica,thecorescientificpublishingmarketisestimatedatbetween$7billionand$11billion.TheInternationalAssociationofScientific,TechnicalandMedicalPublisherssaysthattherearemorethan2,000publishersworldwidespecializinginthesesubjects.Theypublishmorethan1.2millionarticleseachyearinsome16,000journals.Thisisnowchanging.AccordingtotheOECDreport,some75%ofscholarlyjournalsarenowonline.Entirelynewbusinessmodelsareemerging;threemainoneswereidentifiedbythereport’sauthors.Thereistheso-calledbigdeal,whereinstitutionalsubscriberspayforaccesstoacollectionofonlinejournaltitlesthroughsite-licensingagreements.Thereisopen-accesspublishing,typicallysupportedbyaskingtheauthor(orhisemployer)topayforthepapertobepublished.Finally,thereareopen-accessarchives,whereorganizationssuchasuniversitiesorinternationallaboratoriessupportinstitutionalrepositories.Othermodelsexistthatarehybridsofthesethree,suchasdelayedopen-access,wherejournalsallowonlysubscriberstoreadapaperforthefirstsixmonths,beforemakingitfreelyavailabletoeveryonewhowishestoseeit.Allthiscouldchangethetraditionalformofthepeer-reviewprocess,atleastforthepublicationofpapers.26.Inthefirstparagraph,theauthordiscussesAthebackgroundinformationofjournalediting.Bthepublicationroutineoflaboratoryreports.Ctherelationsofauthorswithjournalpublishers.Dthetraditionalprocessofjournalpublication.27.WhichofthefollowingistrueoftheOECDreport?AItcriticizesgovernment-fundedresearch.BItintroducesaneffectivemeansofpublication.CItupsetsprofit-makingjournalpublishers.DItbenefitsscientificresearchconsiderably.28.Accordingtothetext,onlinepublicationissignificantinthatAitprovidesaneasieraccesstoscientificresults.Bitbringshugeprofitstoscientificresearchers.Citemphasizesthecrucialroleofscientificknowledge.Ditfacilitatespublicinvestmentinscientificresearch.29.Withtheopen-accesspublishingmodel,theauthorofapaperisrequiredtoAcoverthecostofitspublication.Bsubscribetothejournalpublishingit.Callowotheronlinejournalstouseitfreely.Dcompletethepeer-reviewbeforesubmission.30.Whichofthefollowingbestsummarizesthemainideaofthetext?ATheInternetisposingathreattopublishers.BAnewmodeofpublicationisemerging.CAuthorswelcomethenewchannelforpublication.DPublicationisrenderedeasierbyonlineservice.Text3Intheearly1960sWiltChamberlainwasoneofonlythreeplayersintheNationalBasketballAssociation(NBA)listedatoversevenfeet.Ifhehadplayedlastseason,however,hewouldhavebeenoneof42.Thebodiesplayingmajorprofessionalsportshavechangeddramaticallyovertheyears,andmanagershavebeenmorethanwillingtoadjustteamuniformstofitthegrowingnumbersofbigger,longerframes.Thetrendinsports,though,maybeobscuringanunrecognizedreality:Americanshavegenerallystoppedgrowing.Thoughtypicallyabouttwoinchestallernowthan140yearsago,today’speople-especiallythoseborntofamilieswhohavelivedintheU.S.formanygenerations-apparentlyreachedtheirlimitintheearly1960s.Andtheyaren’tlikelytogetanytaller.Inthegeneralpopulationtoday,atthisgenetic,environmentallevel,we’veprettymuchgoneasfaraswecango,saysanthropologistWilliamCameronChumleaofWrightStateUniversity.InthecaseofNBAplayers,theirincreaseinheightappearstoresultfromtheincreasinglycommonpracticeofrecruitingplayersfromallovertheworld.Growth,whichrarelycontinuesbeyondtheageof20,demandscaloriesandnutrients-notably,protein-tofeedexpandingtissues.Atthestartofthe20thcentury,under-nutritionandchildhoodinfectionsgotintheway.Butasdietandhealthimproved,childrenandadolescentshave,onaverage,increasedinheightbyaboutaninchandahalfevery20years,apatternknownastheseculartrendinheight.YetaccordingtotheCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention,averageheight-5′9″formen,5′4″forwomen-hasn’treallychangedsince1960.Geneticallyspeaking,thereareadvantagestoavoidingsubstantialheight.Duringchildbirth,largerbabieshavemoredifficultypassingthroughthebirthcanal.Moreover,eventhoughhumanshavebeenuprightformillionsofyears,ourfeetandbackcontinuetostrugglewithbipedalpostureandcannoteasilywithstandrepeatedstrainimposedbyoversizelimbs.Therearesomerealconstraintsthataresetbythegeneticarchitectureoftheindividualorganism,saysanthropologistWilliamLeonardofNorthwesternUniversity.Geneticmaximumscanchange,butdon’texpectthistohappensoon.ClaireC.Gordon,senioranthropologistattheArmyResearchCenterinNatick,Mass.,ensuresthat90percentoftheuniformsandworkstationsfitrecruitswithoutalteration.Shesaysthat,unlikethoseforbasketball,thelengthofmilitaryuniformshasnotchangedforsometime.Andifyouneedtopredicthumanheightinthenearfuturetodesignapieceofequipment,Gordonsaysthatbyandlarge,youcouldusetoday’sdataandfeelfairlyconfident.31.WiltChamberlainiscitedasanexampletoAillustratethechangeofheightofNBAplayers.BshowthepopularityofNBAplayersintheU.S..CcomparedifferentgenerationsofNBAplayers.DassesstheachievementsoffamousNBAplayers.32.Whichofthefollowingplaysakeyroleinbodygrowthaccordingtothetext?AGeneticmodification.BNaturalenvironment.CLivingstandards.DDailyexercise.33.Onwhichofthefollowingstatementswouldtheauthormostprobablyagree?ANon-Americansaddtotheaverageheightofthenation.BHumanheightisconditionedbytheuprightposture.CAmericansarethetallestonaverageintheworld.DLargerbabiestendtobecometallerinadulthood.34.WelearnfromthelastparagraphthatinthenearfutureAthegarmentindustrywillreconsidertheuniformsize.Bthedesignofmilitaryuniformswillremainunchanged.Cgenetictestingwillbeemployedinselectingsportsmen.Dtheexistingdataofhumanheightwillstillbeapplicable.35.ThetextintendstotellusthatAthechangeofhumanheightfollowsacyclicpattern.Bhumanheightisbecomingevenmorepredictable.CAmericanshavereachedtheirgeneticgrowthlimit.DthegeneticpatternofAmericanshasaltered.Text4In1784,fiveyearsbeforehebecamepresidentoftheUnitedStates,GeorgeWashington,52,wasnearlytoothless.Sohehiredadentisttotransplantnineteethintohisjaw-havingextractedthemfromthemouthsofhisslaves.That’safardifferentimagefromthecherry-tree-choppingGeorgemostpeoplerememberfromtheirhistorybooks.Butrecently,manyhistorianshavebeguntofocusontherolesslaveryplayedinthelivesofthefoundinggeneration.TheyhavebeenspurredinpartbyDNAevidencemadeavailablein1998,whichalmostcertainlyprovedThomasJeffersonhadfatheredatleastonechildwithhisslaveSallyHemings.Andonlyoverthepast30yearshavescholarsexaminedhistoryfromthebottomup.Worksofseveralhistoriansrevealthemoralcompromisesmadebythenation’searlyleadersandthefragilenatureofthecountry’sinfancy.Moresignificantly,theyarguethatmanyoftheFoundingFathersknewslaverywaswrong-andyetmostdidlittletofightit.Morethananything,thehistorianssay,thefounderswerehamperedbythecultureoftheirtime.WhileWashingtonandJeffersonprivatelyexpresseddistasteforslavery,theyalsounderstoodthatitwaspartofthepoliticalandeconomicbedrockofthecountrytheyhelpedtocreate.Foronething,theSouthcouldnotaffordtopartwithitsslaves.Owningslaveswaslikehavingalargebankaccount,saysWiencek,authorofAnImperfectGod:GeorgeWashington,HisSlaves,andtheCreationofAmerica.ThesouthernstateswouldnothavesignedtheConstitutionwithoutprotectionsforthepeculiarinstitution,includingaclausethatcountedaslaveasthreefifthsofamanforpurposesofcongressionalrepresentation.Andthestatesmen’spoliticallivesdependedonslavery.Thethree-fifthsformulahandedJeffersonhisnarrowvictoryinthepresidentialelectionof1800byinflatingthevotesofthesouthernstatesintheElectoralCollege.Onceinoffice,JeffersonextendedslaverywiththeLouisianaPurchasein1803;thenewlandwascarvedinto13states,includingthreeslavestates.Still,JeffersonfreedHemings’schildren-thoughnotHemingsherselforhisapproximately150otherslaves.Washington,whohadbeguntobelievethatallmenwerecreatedequalafterobservingthebraveryoftheblacksoldiersduringtheRevolutionaryWar,overcamethestrongoppositionofhisrelativestogranthisslavestheirfreedominhiswill.Onlyadecadeearlier,suchanactwouldhaverequiredlegislativeapprovalinVirginia.36.GeorgeWashington’sdentalsurgeryismentionedtoAshowtheprimitivemedicalpracticeinthepast.Bdemonstratethecrueltyofslaveryinhisdays.CstresstheroleofslavesintheU.S.history.Drevealsomeunknownaspectofhislife.37.WemayinferfromthesecondparagraphthatADNAtechnologyhasbeenwidelyappliedtohistoryresearch.BinitsearlydaystheU.S.wasconfrontedwithdelicatesituations.ChistoriansdeliberatelymadeupsomestoriesofJefferson’slife.DpoliticalcompromisesareeasilyfoundthroughouttheU.S.history.38.WhatdowelearnaboutThomasJefferson?AHispoliticalviewchangedhisattitudetowardsslavery.BHisstatusasafathermadehimfreethechildslaves.CHisattitudetowardsslaverywascomplex.DHisaffairwithaslavestainedhisprestige.39.Whichofthefollowingistrueaccordingtothetext?ASomeFoundingFathersbenefitpoliticallyfromslavery.BSlavesintheolddaysdidnothavetherighttovote.CSlaveownersusuallyhadlargesavingsaccounts.DSlaverywasregardedasapeculiarinstitution.40.Washington’sdecisiontofreeslavesoriginatedfromhisAmoralconsiderations.Bmilitaryexperience.Cfinancialconditions.Dpoliticalstand.PartBDirections:Inthefollowingarticle,somesentenceshavebeenremoved.ForQuestions41-45,choosethemostsuitableonefromthelistA-Gtofitintoeachofthenumberedblanks.Therearetwoextrachoices,whichdonotfitinanyoftheblanks.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET1.(10points)Thetimeforsharpeningpencils,arrangingyourdesk,anddoingalmostanythingelseinsteadofwritinghasended.Thefirstdraftwillappearonthepageonlyifyoustopavoidingtheinevitableandsit,standup,orliedowntowrite.(41)Beflexible.Youroutlineshouldsmoothlyconductyoufromonepointtothenext,butdonotpermitittorailroadyou.Ifarelevantandimportantideaoccurstoyounow,workitintothedraft.(42)Grammar,punctuation,andspellingcanwaituntilyourevise.Concentrateonwhatyouaresaying.Goodwritingmostoftenoccurswhenyouareinhotpursuitofanidearatherthaninanervoussearchforerrors.(43)Yourpageswillbeeasiertokeeptrackofthatway,and,ifyouhavetoclipaparagraphtoplaceitelsewhere,youwillnotloseanywritingontheotherside.Ifyouareworkingonawordprocessor,youcantakeadvantageofitscapacitytomakeadditionsanddeletionsaswellasmoveentireparagraphsbymakingjustafewsimplekeyboardcommands.Somesoftwareprogramscanalsocheckspellingandcertaingrammaticalelementsinyourwriting.(44)Theseprintoutsarealsoeasiertoreadthanthescreenwhenyouworkonrevisions.Onceyouhaveafirstdraftonpaper,youcandeletematerialthatisunrelatedtoyourthesisandaddmaterialnecessarytoillustrateyourpointsandmakeyourpaperconvincing.ThestudentwhowroteTheA&PasaStateofMindwiselydroppedaparagraphthatquestionedwhetherSammydisplayschauvinisticattitudestowardwomen.(45)Rememberthatyourinitialdraftisonlythat.Youshouldgothroughthepapermanytimes-andthenagain-workingtosubstantiateandclarifyyourideas.Youmayevenendupwithseveralentireversionsofthepaper.Rewrite.Thesentenceswithineachparagraphshouldberelatedtoasingletopic.Transitionsshouldconnectoneparagraphtothenextsothattherearenoabruptorconfusingshifts.Awkwardorwordyphrasingorunclearsentencesandparagraphsshouldbemercilesslypokedandproddedintoshape.ATomakerevisingeasier,leavewidemarginsandextraspacebetweenlinessothatyoucaneasilyaddwords,sentences,andcorrections.Writeononlyonesideofthepaper.BAfteryouhaveclearlyandadequatelydevelopedthebodyofyourpaper,payparticularattentiontotheintroductoryandconcludingparagraphs.It’sprobablybesttowritetheintroductionlast,afteryouknowpreciselywhatyouareintroducing.Concludingparagraphsdemandequalattentionbecausetheyleavethereaderwithafinalimpression.CIt’sworthremembering,however,thatthoughacleancopyfreshoffaprintermaylookterrific,itwillreadonlyaswellasthethinkingandwritingthathavegoneintoit.Manywritersprudentlystoretheirdataondisksandprinttheirpageseachtimetheyfinishadrafttoavoidlosinganymaterialbecauseofpowerfailuresorotherproblems.DItmakesnodifferencehowyouwrite,justsoyoudo.Nowthatyouhavedevelopedatopicintoatentativethesis,youcanassembleyournotesandbegintofleshoutwhateveroutlineyouhavemade.EAlthoughthisisaninterestingissue,ithasnothingtodowiththethesis,whichexplainshowthesettinginfluencesSammy’sdecisiontoquithisjob.Insteadofincludingthatparagraph,sheaddedonethatdescribedLengel’scrabbedresponsetothegirlssothatshecouldleaduptotheA&Ppolicyheenforces.FInthefinalparagraphaboutthesignificanceofthesettinginA&P,thestudentbringstogetherthereasonsSammyquithisjobbyreferringtohisrefusaltoacceptLengel’sstorepolicies.GByusingthefirstdraftasameansofthinkingaboutwhatyouwanttosay,youwillverylikelydiscovermorethanyournotesoriginallysuggested.Plentyofgoodwritersdon’tuseoutlinesatallbutdiscoverorderingprinciplesastheywrite.Donotattempttocomposeaperfectlycorrectdraftthefirsttimearound.PartCDirections:ReadthefollowingtextcarefullyandthentranslatetheunderlinedsegmentsintoChinese.YourtranslationshouldbewrittenclearlyonANSWERSHEET2.(10points)Inhisautobiography,Darwinhimselfspeaksofhisintellectualpowerswithextraordinarymodesty.Hepointsoutthathealwaysexperiencedmuchdifficultyinexpressinghimselfclearlyandconcisely,but(46)hebelievesthatthisverydifficultymayhavehadthecompensatingadvantageofforcinghimtothinklongandintentlyabouteverysentence,andthusenablinghimtodetecterrorsinreasoningandinhisownobservations.Hedisclaimedthepossessionofanygreatquicknessofapprehensionorwit,suchasdistinguishedHuxley.(47)Heasserted,also,thathispowertofollowalongandpurelyabstracttrainofthoughtwasverylimited,forwhichreasonhefeltcertainthathenevercouldhavesucceededwithmathematics.Hismemory,too,hedescribedasextensive,buthazy.Sopoorinonesensewasitthathenevercouldrememberformorethanafewdaysasingledateoralineofpoetry.(48)Ontheotherhand,hedidnotacceptaswellfoundedthechargemadebysomeofhiscriticsthat,whilehewasagoodobserver,hehadnopowerofreasoning.This,hethought,couldnotbetrue,becausetheOriginofSpeciesisonelongargumentfromthebeginningtotheend,andhasconvincedmanyablemen.Noone,hesubmits,couldhavewrittenitwithoutpossessingsomepowerofreasoning.HewaswillingtoassertthatIhaveafairshareofinvention,andofcommonsenseorjudgment,suchaseveryfairlysuccessfullawyerordoctormusthave,butnot,Ibelieve,inanyhigherdegree.(49)Headdshumblythatperhapshewassuperiortothecommonrunofmeninnoticingthingswhicheasilyescapeattention,andinobservingthemcarefully.Writinginthelastyearofhislife,heexpressedtheopinionthatintwoorthreerespectshismindhadchangedduringtheprecedingtwentyorthirtyyears.Uptotheageofthirtyorbeyonditpoetryofmanykindsgavehimgreatpleasure.Formerly,too,pictureshadgivenhimconsiderable,andmusicverygreat,delight.In1881,however,hesaid:NowformanyyearsIcannotenduretoreadalineofpoetry.Ihavealsoalmostlostmytasteforpicturesormusic.(50)Darwinwasconvincedthatthelossofthesetasteswasnotonlyalossofhappiness,butmightpossiblybeinjurioustotheintellect,andmoreprobablytothemoralcharacter.SectionIIIWritingPartA51.Directions:YouhavejustcomebackfromCanadaandfoundamusicCDinyourluggagethatyouforgottoreturntoBob,yourlandlordthere.Writehimaletterto1)makeanapology,and2)suggestasolution.Youshouldwriteabout100wordsonANSWERSHEET2.Donotsignyourownnameattheendoftheletter.UseLiMinginstead.Donotwritetheaddress.(10points)PartB52.Directions:Writeanessayof160-200wordsbasedonthefollowingdrawing.Inyouressay,youshould1)describethedrawingbriefly,2)explainitsintendedmeaning,andthen3)giveyourcomments.YoushouldwriteneatlyonANSWERSHEET2.(20points)真题详解完型填空1、答案:B解析:本题测试语义论理衔接。

      核心词含有access,反应核心的是解,得以规定答案为A。

      如其后想连续接着学详尽辨析讲授的财经学习者、纽约时报等外刊辨析,长难句辨析、译者讲授之类,得以关切公主号高斋外刊双语精读。

      21.GeorgeOsborne’sschemewasintendedto_______.Aprovidetheunemployedwitheasieraccesstobenefits.Bencouragejobseekers’activeengagementinjobseeking.Cmotivatetheunemployedtoreportvoluntarily.Dguaranteejobseekers’legitimaterighttobenefits.答案:B底细题。

      这一有些得以译者为贝多芬是个理论自由、充塞勇气的人。

      4\.AformallyBrelativelyCgraduallyDliterally答案:D.literally解析:literally示意实地,真正地,Formally(正规地),relatively(相对地),gradually(逐步地)5\.AbackBnextCaroundDaway答案:A.back解析:填入back,示意回到文化6\.AontoBoffCacrossDalone答案:B.off解析:B选项off(离家,撤离)7\.AunattractiveBuncrowdedCunchangedDunfamiliar答案:D.unfamiliar解析:此处需求与前文结成转折瓜葛。

      That指引的从句是charge的同位语,囊括一个while指引的退让状语从句。

      这也就使他具有了旁人所不具备的优势。

      30.B解析:正于28题分析的,正文核心说明了一样问世新的趋向——网络问世。

      此外,得以根据排出法得以懂得A,B,C不对。

      从文中咱得以看出,因是单身妈妈,Alvarez面临很大的生活压力,付房租,支出用车花销,偿付借款等。

      subjectto意为使…消受或蒙受;limitto示意限量;convertto示意变动;directto示意指向。

      Text2Allaroundtheworld,lawyersgeneratemorehostilitythanthemembersofanyotherprofession---withthepossibleexceptionofjournalism.ButtherearefewplaceswhereclientshavemoregroundsforcomplaintthanAmerica.Duringthedecadebeforetheeconomiccrisis,spendingonlegalservicesinAmericagrewtwiceasfastasinflation.Thebestlawyersmadeskyscrapers-fullofmoney,temptingevermorestudentstopileintolawschools.Butmostlawgraduatesnevergetabig-firmjob.Manyoftheminsteadbecomethekindofnuisance-lawsuitfilerthatmakesthetortsystemacostlynightmare.Therearemanyreasonsforthis.Oneistheexcessivecostsofalegaleducation.ThereisjustonepathforalawyerinmostAmericanstates:afour-yearundergraduatedegreeatoneof200lawschoolsauthorizedbytheAmericanBarAssociationandanexpensivepreparationforthebarexam.Thisleavestoday’saveragelaw-schoolgraduatewith$100,000ofdebtontopofundergraduatedebts.Law-schooldebtmeansthattheyhavetoworkfearsomelyhard.Reformingthesystemwouldhelpbothlawyersandtheircustomers.Sensibleideashavebeenaroundforalongtime,butthestate-levelbodiesthatgoverntheprofessionhavebeentooconservativetoimplementthem.Oneideaistoallowpeopletostudylawasanundergraduatedegree.Anotheristoletstudentssitforthebarafteronlytwoyearsoflawschool.Ifthebarexamistrulyasternenoughtestforawould-belawyer,thosewhocansititearliershouldbeallowedtodoso.Studentswhodonotneedtheextratrainingcouldcuttheirdebtmountainbyathird.Theotherreasonwhycostsaresohighistherestrictiveguild-likeownershipstructureofthebusiness.ExceptintheDistrictofColumbia,non-lawyersmaynotownanyshareofalawfirm.Thiskeepsfeeshighandinnovationslow.Thereispressureforchangefromwithintheprofession,butopponentsofchangeamongtheregulatorsinsistthatkeepingoutsidersoutofalawfirmisolateslawyersfromthepressuretomakemoneyratherthanserveclientsethically.Infact,allowingnon-lawyerstoownsharesinlawfirmswouldreducecostsandimproveservicestocustomers,byencouraginglawfirmstousetechnologyandtoemployprofessionalmanagerstofocusonimprovingfirms’efficiency.Afterall,othercountries,suchasAustraliaandBritain,havestartedliberalizingtheirlegalprofessions.Americashouldfollow.26.alotofstudentstakeuplawastheirprofessiondueto_______.Athegrowingdemandfromclients.Btheincreasingpressureofinflation.Ctheprospectofworkinginbigfirms.Dtheattractionoffinancialrewards.答案:D。

      18\.答案:A解析:本题稽考动词分析。

      12\.AproblemBoptionCviewDresult答案:B.Option解析:option示意选择,点子13\.AAboveallBIncontrastCOnaverageDForexample答案:D.Forexample解析:空格前后罗列了一连串象。

      D选项根据题干conditional定位到最后一段最后一句,内中只提到conditionalonactivelyseekingajob…,并没要说以后应当怎样,因而属无中生有。

      50\.Darvinwasconvincedthatthelossofthesetasteswasnotonlyalossofhappiness,butmightpossiblybeinjurioustotheintellect,andmoreprobablytothemoralcharacter.本题考清点是宾语从句。

      【译者要端】①本句核心的主句是主系表构造,reason后why指引的定语从句较长,译者时得以与主职员分组合,调整抒发为:这也即干吗….。

      篇二段说明一样时新的问世方式——网络问世,使科技人手易于博得学结果。

      该题为因果报应底细题,问因。

      11\.基准答案D考点分析论理衔接题选项分析本题需求的是一个副词,并且坐落句首,故此调查的是句瓜葛。

      Benvironment条件。

      Capartfrom除……之外也不合适。

      and连多少名词,这些名词应当为同一类,职业、社交都是和匹夫相干,排除B和D,Cpersonalrelationship即social的意,不许重复,选择A,匹夫福。

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